Scheler describes a hierarchy of value:
- sinnliche Werte, or values of the senses and utility which register pleasure or pain;
- Lebeswerte, or values of vitality or life, values "such as courage, bravery, readiness to sacrifice, daring, magnanimity, loyalty, humility ... or what is mean (gemein), such as cowardice, pusillanimity, self-seeking, small-mindedness, treachery and arrogance. Then comes the realm of the
- geistige Werte, values of the intellect or spirit – principally justice, beauty and truth, with their opposites. The final realm is that of
- das Heilige, the holy." (The Master and His Emissary, Iain McGilchrist, 2009; page 160).