Along with the Industrial Revolution, which transformed Europe's real economy from agricultural to industrial, the modern era experienced two other revolutions: political and financial.
The political revolution, one could say, was tipped over by the French Revolution, which began to put an end to the ancien regime and the rule of the absolute monarch and his aristocracy, and to replace it with one form or another of the modern nation-state.
The financial revolution was less well defined. The financial revolution represented the monetary side of the real economic and political revolutions going on at the time. The scale of finance expanded tremendously as the scale and the volume of massive industrial and politically funded projects increased explosively.
The Jews served as the midwives of that financial revolution. It was the European Jewish upper classes who financed Europe's financial revolution.