The Hapsburgs maintained their empire by the favoring some nationalities over others.
"The secret of the survival of the House of Hapsburg in the nineteenth century lay in careful balance and support of a supranational machinery by the mutual antagonism and exploitation of Czechs by Germans, of Slovaks by Hungarians, of Ruthenians by Poles, and so on. For all of them it became a matter of course that one might achieve nationhood at the expense of the others and that one would gladly be deprived of freedom if the oppression came from one's own national government." (The Origins of Totalitarianism, Hannah Arendt, 1994; page 236).
We see the same sort of ethnic manipulation going on in the way the British and French carved up the Middle East. Minorities were always put in place to rule over disenfranchised majorities.
All of the Middle East is occupied territory except for the State of Israel.